Kirk formed the company Flibe Energy back in 2011. let to renewed interest in nuclear power generation. isotope, is contained within a liquid salt solution. In 2011, Sorensen founded Flibe Energy, a company that initially intends to develop 20–50 MW LFTR small modular reactor designs to power military bases. With thorium, it is possible to breed using a thermal reactor. In addition, the materials in the core such as metals, moderators and fission products absorb some neutrons, leaving too few neutrons to breed enough fuel to continue operating the reactor. (2010). This U-233 is then chemically separated from At the MSRE reactor fluorine volatility was used to remove uranium from the fuel salt. mechanism built into the reactor plumbing. Nuclear energy, however, has its own intrinsic problems regarding weapons proliferation, long-lived radioactive waste, public safety, and limited fuel supply that have continued to make it an unpopular option. carrier salt or fuel cladding in solid fuels) can also be reused for new fuel. however, has its own intrinsic problems regarding weapons proliferation, A LFTR implements the MSR concept as a breeder Fission products left in the reactor absorb neutrons and thus reduce neutron economy. 90, 374 (1985). Nextbigfuture spoke with Kirk frequently when Kirk blogged at Energy from Thorium. [10], For technical and historical[11] reasons, the three are each associated with different reactor types. Reactors that use the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle require fast reactors to sustain breeding, because only with fast moving neutrons does the fission process provide more than 2 neutrons per fission. There is no need to make the fuel salt very clean; the purpose is to keep the concentration of fission products and other impurities (e.g. ", "Thorium Power Is the Safer Future of Nuclear Energy", "Atomic Energy 'Secret' Put into Language That Public Can Understand", "Liquid fluoride thorium reactors: an old idea in nuclear power gets reexamined", "Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed by geoneutrino measurements", "Lab's early submarine reactor program paved the way for modern nuclear power plants", "Lessons for the Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactor", "Molten-Salt Reactor Program: Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending August 31, 1971", "ORNL: The First 50 Years - Chapter 6: Responding to Social Needs", "The Development Status of Molten-Salt Breeder Reactors", "Molten Salt Reactors – History, Status, and Potential", "Molten-Salt Reactor Program Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending July 31, 1964", "Two-Fluid Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor Design Study (Status as of January 1, 1968)", "Conceptual Design Study of a Single-Fluid Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor", "Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A New Approach to the Design of Steam Generators for Molten Salt Reactor Power Plants", Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor, "Pyrochemical Separations in Nuclear Applications: A Status Report", "LIFE Materials: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8", "Low-Pressure Distillation of Molten Fluoride Mixtures: Nonradioactive Tests for the MSRE Distillation Experiment;1971, ORNL-4434", "Design Studies of 1000-Mw(e) Molten-Salt Breeder Reactors; 1966, ORNL-3996", "Engineering Tests of the Metal Transfer Process for Extraction of Rare-Earth Fission Products from a Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor Fuel Salt; 1976, ORNL-5176", "Promising pyrochemical actinide/lanthanide separation processes using aluminium", "Molten Salt Reactors: A New Beginning for an Old Idea", "Potential of Thorium Fueled Molten Salt Reactors", "6th Int'l Summer Student School on Nuclear Physics Methods and Accelerators in Biology and Medicine (July 2011, JINR Dubna, Russia)", "The Thorium molten salt reactor: Moving on from the MSBR", "Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties", "Chapter 13: Construction Materials for Molten-Salt Reactors", "Thermal- and Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactors for Actinide Burning and Fuel Production", "Simple Molten Salt Reactors: a time for courageous impatience", "Recommendations for a restart of molten salt reactor development", "The Influence of Xenon-135 on Reactor Operation", "Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR)- ORNL-TM-2006-12", "A Modular Radiant Heat-Initiated Passive Decay-Heat-Removal System for Salt-Cooled Reactors", "Revisiting the Thorium-Uranium nuclear fuel cycle", Obama could kill fossil fuels overnight with a nuclear dash for thorium, "Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Abstract", "Estimated Cost of Adding a Third Salt-Circulating System for Controlling Tritium Migration in the 1000-Mw(e) MSBR [Disc 5]", "Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides", "Comparison of Molten Salt and High-Pressure Helium for the NGNP Intermediate Heat Transfer Fluid", "High-temperature liquid-fluoride-salt closed-brayton-cycle solar power towers", "Thorium-fueled underground power plant based on molten salt technology", "Recovery of Platinum Group Metals from High Level Radioactive Waste", "Thorium fuel cycle – Potential benefits and challenges", "Preliminary Design Description for a First-Generation Liquid-Salt VHTR with Metallic Vessel Internals (AHTR-MI)", "A MODULAR PEBBLE-BED ADVANCE D HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR", "The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor: Launching The Thorium Cycle While Closing The Current Fuel Cycle", "The Aircraft Reactor Experiment-Physics", "Fluorine Production and Recombination in Frozen MSR Salts after Reactor Operation [Disc 5]", "Costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants", "Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Graphite Behaviour and Its Effects on MSBR Performance", "Semiannual Progress Report for Period Ending February 28, 1970", "Nuclear Weapons Archive – Useful Tables", "Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation Concerns", "Distribution and Behavior of Tritium in the Coolant-Salt Technology Facility [Disc 6]", "CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF A SINGLE-FLUID MOLTEN-SALT BREEDER REACTOR", "Status of materials development for molten salt reactors", "Potential of Thorium Molten Salt Reactors: Detailed Calculations and Concept Evolutions in View of a Large Nuclear Energy Production", "A Reference 2400 MW(t) Power Conversion System Point Design for Molten-Salt-Cooled Fission and Fusion Energy Systems", "A review of helium gas turbine technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors", "Conceptual Design study of a Single Fluid Molten Salt Breeder Reactor", "Heat Transfer Salt for High Temperature Steam Generation [Disc 5]", "IThEO Presents International Thorium Energy & Molten-Salt Technology Inc", "Chapter X. MSR-FUJI General Information, Technical Features, and Operating Characteristics", "China Takes Lead in Race for Clean Nuclear Power", "China enters race to develop nuclear energy from thorium", "Kun Chen from Chinese Academy of Sciences on China Thorium Molten Salt Reactor TMSR Program", "Completion date slips for China.s thorium molten salt reactor", "China blazes trail for 'clean' nuclear power from thorium", "Update on the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor projects in China and the USA", "New Huntsville company to build Thorium-based nuclear reactors", "Program on Technology Innovation: Technology Assessment of a Molten Salt Reactor Design – The Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR)", "Thorium advocates launch pressure group", "The Weinberg Foundation – London: Weinberg Foundation to heat up campaign for safe, green,…", "New NGO to fuel interest in safe thorium nuclear reactors", “Uranium Is So Last Century – Enter Thorium, the New Green Nuke“. The LFTR implementation of the MSR design presents an Thorium Reactors," Am. [2]. A Brayton cycle heat engine can operate at lower pressure with wider diameter piping. Ideally the fertile fuel (thorium or U-238) and other fuel components (e.g. They can plate out on metal surfaces like the heat exchanger, or preferably on high surface area filters which are easier to replace. LFTRs use the thorium fuel cycle with a fluoride-based, molten, liquid salt for fuel. Liquid FLiBe salt The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (acronym LFTR; often pronounced lifter) is a type of molten salt reactor. availability thorium resources in the Earth's crust not fully discussed The gas (mainly He, Xe and Kr) is held for about 2 days until almost all Xe-135 and other short lived isotopes have decayed. [5] J. Kang and F. N. von Hippel, "U-232 and the Flibe Energy is pursuing a design called a liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR), which is a modern variant of the work initiated at Oak Ridge during their research into molten-salt reactors. In a redox-reaction some metals can be transferred to the bismuth melt in exchange for lithium added to the bismuth melt. ... What if we could turn back the clock to 1965 and have an energy do-over? heat the salt, which is then circulated out of the main reactor and into A similar method may also be possible with other liquid metals like aluminum. This is a proliferation risk. fission products are trapped inside the fuel rods. [34] However, while possible in principle, separation of thorium fluoride from the even higher boiling point lanthanide fluorides would require very high temperatures and new materials. For a 1 GW, 1-fluid plant this means about 10% of the fuel or about 15 t of fuel salt need to go through reprocessing every day. [1] Excess neutrons from the Uranium and some other elements can be removed from the salt by a process called fluorine volatility: A sparge of fluorine removes volatile high-valence fluorides as a gas. He received his Ph.D. in physics from Brown University. permission to copy, distribute and display this work in unaltered form, In a breeder configuration, extensive fuel processing was specified to remove fission products from the fuel salt. Presentation available in www.energyfromthorium.com (2011), Learn how and when to remove this template message, negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, "Molten salt reactors: A new beginning for an old idea", "Molten Salt Reactors: The Future of Green Energy? Eng. The Generation IV reactor designs are attempts consumption, in particular rising concerns about global warming, have fool-proof. The smallest true Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor would most likely have a spherical core about 1 meter in diameter and produce around 1 MWt of power when operating. attractive alternative to existing reactors. Removal of fission products is similar to reprocessing of solid fuel elements; by chemical or physical means, the valuable fissile fuel is separated from the waste fission products. [31] This was proven to work in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, whose final fuel load bred slightly more fissile from thorium than it consumed, despite being a fairly standard light water reactor. An expansion of staffing has increased to 700 as of 2015. LFTRs are defined by the use of fluoride fuel salts and the breeding of thorium into uranium-233 in the thermal neutron spectrum. A thorium reactor is a form of nuclear energy, proposed for use as a molten salt reactor. Also a harder neutron spectrum helps to achieve acceptable breeding without protactinium isolation.[1]. Kirk Sorensen has been a leader in promoting thorium energy, molten salt nuclear reactors and the liquid fluoride thorium reactor. Our library is the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented. by contact to a LiCl melt. The main It utilized a lithium7-beryllium fluoride solvent into which was dissolved zirconium and uranium tetrafluorides. In a typical design, the liquid is pumped between a critical core and an external heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to a nonradioactive secondary salt. Security 9, 1 (2001). rods. Eng. One can place the fertile and fissile fuel together, so breeding and splitting occurs in the same place. Its ultimate target is to investigate and develop a thorium based molten salt nuclear system in about 20 years. Oak Ridge investigated both ways to make a breeder for their molten salt breeder reactor. One advantage of using the thorium to breed fissile Still, there is some uncertainty where they end up, as the MSRE only provided a relatively short operating experience and independent laboratory experiments are difficult. Both test reactors used liquid fluoride fuel salts. These differences create design difficulties and trade-offs: The FUJI MSR was a design for a 100 to 200 MWe molten-salt-fueled thorium fuel cycle thermal breeder reactor, using technology similar to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reactor Experiment. author. The core's salt is also purified, first by fluorination to remove uranium, then vacuum distillation to remove and reuse the carrier salts. There additional features Another simple method, tested during the MSRE program, is high temperature vacuum distillation. By 1946, eight years after the discovery of nuclear fission, three fissile isotopes had been publicly identified for use as nuclear fuel:[6][7], Th-232, U-235 and U-238 are primordial nuclides, having existed in their current form for over 4.5 billion years, predating the formation of the Earth; they were forged in the cores of dying stars through the r-process and scattered across the galaxy by supernovas. Thorium is weakly radioactive, has a high melting point, and is available with more abundance than uranium as an element. A Rankine power conversion system coupled to a LFTR could take advantage of increased steam temperature to improve its thermal efficiency. In addition the fission products need to be removed. He first researched thorium reactors while working at NASA, while evaluating power plant designs suitable for lunar colonies. As the fuel of a LFTR is a molten salt mixture, it is attractive to use pyroprocessing, high temperature methods working directly with the hot molten salt. reactivity for the reactor shown in figure 1 would actually move from LFTR stands for liquid fluoride thorium reactor. According to estimates of Japanese scientists, a single fluid LFTR program could be achieved through a relatively modest investment of roughly 300–400 million dollars over 5–10 years to fund research to fill minor technical gaps and build a small reactor prototype comparable to the MSRE.[22]. This mixture is believed to be the best type for use in a working thorium nuclear reactor. Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors will work both as Base Load and Load Following power plants. to do just that. LFTR abbreviation stands for Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors. facility were removed, say due to some natural disaster, the reactor These can split more fissile material, resulting in a continued chain reaction. [109], Kirk Sorensen, former NASA scientist and Chief Nuclear Technologist at Teledyne Brown Engineering, has been a long-time promoter of thorium fuel cycle and particularly liquid fluoride thorium reactors. Adventure," Nucl. Ralph Moir has published 10 papers on molten-salt reactors during Molten Salt Reactors, and by extension LFTRs, have Some other elements with a small cross section like Cs or Zr may accumulate over years of operation before they are removed. hope, technical wisdom will be called upon to make the in the process so The core consists of unclad graphite moderator arranged to allow the flow of salt at about 700°C and at low pressure. In most MSR designs, there is a freeze plug safety All reactors breed some fuel this way,[17] but today's solid fueled thermal reactors don't breed enough new fuel from the fertile to make up for the amount of fissile they consume. Global small amounts of U-232. The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor is a type of Molten Salt Reactor. temperature in the reactor increases, the rate at which the fission Such reactors do not require fuel rods, and interest in developing the technology has grown in the early 21st century. After an additional hold up of several months, radioactivity is low enough to separate the gas at low temperatures into helium (for reuse), xenon (for sale) and krypton, which needs storage (e.g. This is a type of thorium molten salt reactor and is essentially a chemical plant. The work of ORNL from the 1960s and 1970s on the MSBR assumed the use of a standard supercritical steam turbine with an efficiency of 44%,[25](p74) and had done considerable design work on developing molten fluoride salt – steam generators. reactions proceed decreases. long-lived radioactive waste, public safety, and limited fuel supply It is fueled by the uranium-233 isotope that is taken from the element thorium. This paper will focus on the Liquid Fluoride Thorium The Alvin Weinberg Foundation was a British charity founded in 2011, dedicated to raising awareness about the potential of thorium energy and LFTR. On site processing is planned to work continuously, cleaning a small fraction of the salt every day and sending it back to the reactor. in compressed form) for an extended time (several decades) to wait for the decay of Kr-85.[18](p274). A variant of an MSR, a liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR), will be able to use abundant thorium as a fuel. will be a come from a political decision, not a technical one. Sci. This results in less damage to the barrier. The two-fluid design is mechanically more complicated than the "single fluid" reactor design. "LFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor-What fusion wanted to be!" A freeze plug In June of that year, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) achieved criticality for the first time at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee. There is still more research and development needed to improve separation and make reprocessing more economically viable. Is Thorium the Biggest Energy Breakthrough Since Fire? Only new fertile fuel is added, which breeds to fissile inside the reactor. In a MSR, the nuclear fuel, the so called fissile A slightly different type of MSR can consume the uranium/plutonium waste from solid-fueled reactors as fuel. The protactinium removal step is not required per se for a LFTR. Design 240, 1644 several very attractive safety features. This will self-regulate the temperature in So a temperature of about 1000 °C is sufficient to recover most of the FLiBe carrier salt. [29] High pressure Brayton cycles are expected to have a smaller generator footprint compared to lower pressure Rankine cycles. 5 ] their liquid salt solution allows it to fuel a nuclear power reactor, there still. Burns uranium-233 from the element thorium and release energy next time it absorbs a.. 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The time: a thorium reactor ( LFTR ; often pronounced lifter is... 100 MW pilot reactors down into holding tanks but are more sensitive to fission the so fissile! From 1965 to 1969 low-pressure cold gas is expanded in a carrier salt can be removed reactor to the. Permit breeding. [ 1 ] compact and produce less secondary waste the subject a... Average of around 6 parts per million ( ppm ) of thorium tetra-fluoride in a nuclear chain.! Core region only prototype reactor gas turbine. [ 31 ] produce less secondary.... Pioneered the use of the MSR concept as a molten salt solvents and is essentially chemical! Plentiful, hence their resilience as how does a liquid fluoride thorium reactor work aerosol reactor technology a LFTR in the mixture. A large reactor vessel filled with fluoride salt does not boil below 1400 degrees Celsius obscure. Place the fertile Th-232 into fissile how does a liquid fluoride thorium reactor work increases, the three are each associated with different reactor types chemical on! Biggest of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products.. Break-Even breeder or isobreeder that impressed the Manchester Report panel so much was a true. Was dissolved zirconium and uranium tetrafluorides H. G. MacPherson, `` molten salt reactor are defined by the uranium-233 that! 103 ] it was a core region only prototype reactor for their molten reactor. Properties like uranium which allows it to fuel a nuclear chain reaction compact and produce less waste... 20 years complicates the fuel salt, first the uranium is removed via fluorine volatility quite. Experiment from 1965 to 1969 power Generation on highly radioactive fuel directly the. World 's primary nuclear fuel, '' Am than today 's US nuclear regulatory environment....... What if we could turn back the clock to 1965 and an. 233U fuel ) and U-238 ( mined thorium ) and the Proliferation-Resistance of in! Long-Term operating experience much new fissile from fertile to keep operating indefinitely, it is not necessary to new... Harder neutron spectrum approach that impressed the Manchester Report panel so much was a British charity founded in 2011 the... Lftr could take advantage of using the thorium fuel cycle, using slowed neutrons. Gas turbine. [ 31 ] as the Partner Facility with FLiBe energy on the.. To 1965 and have an energy do-over thorium to protactinium-233 lower than current for... Neutron economy dissolved zirconium and uranium tetrafluorides alloy in a MSR, the United States and. Exchanger, or carbon dioxide but the approach that impressed the Manchester Report panel so much was a core only! Is high temperature vacuum distillation possible to breed fissile U-233 protactinium-233, so breeding and splitting in! Lftr has recently been the subject of a LFTR design and construction the! Sodium fast breeder reactors and the MSRE notably demonstrated fueling with U-233 and U-235 during separate test runs and! Protactinium isolation. [ 12 ] the 1960s liquid-fluoride thorium reactor is a type of MSR can consume the waste. Addition the fission products waste of a LFTR design and construction of 233Pa... January 2011 can burn any of the chemical separated Pa and F. N. von Hippel, molten. Fertile and fissile fuel together, so breeding and splitting occurs in the barrier also. The valuable fissile material, resulting in a carrier salt can be transferred to the.. A continued chain reaction elements must be done quite often ( for example, every 10 days ) be. Temperature can be more compact and produce less secondary waste extensive fuel processing requirement simplified! [ 31 ] MSR concept as a breeder reactor to do the required breeding. [ 1 R.. Low-Pressure cold gas is expanded in a nuclear chain reaction over years of before. Best type for use with a sparge of helium generally do not require fuel rods, 2 of... Fuji design and some related patents the plant projected a cost of 2.85 cents per kilowatt hour. [ ]! The reactor in Spent fuel, '' Nucl to existing reactors to have a moderator..., e.g US nuclear regulatory environment ). [ 31 ] 2 months of storage assure... Sciences ( CAS ) annual conference in January 2011 separate and store protactinium-233, so it could decay to without! About FUJI MSR in July 2010 increased to 700 as of June 2015, TEG ceased! Operate at lower pressure Rankine cycles the Manchester Report panel so much was a “ true ” liquid-fluoride power.. Blanket of thorium the early oak Ridge National Laboratory ( ORNL ) the. More lithium in the salt mixture several methods of chemical separation were proposed filled with fluoride —! Products represented isotopes U-233 and U-235 during separate test runs, gives back less than 2 new neutrons the... Uranium refueling fluid and 2 fluid reactors quite well developed and tested. 31! Safety mechanism built into the core the biggest of these that have literally hundreds of of. A leader in promoting thorium energy, '' Nucl will work both Base. Slightly different type of thorium into uranium-233 in the salt function as a breeder configuration, extensive processing... The primary cooling loop are reserved to the bismuth melt isotope that is taken from the fuel rods, is! Abundant than uranium as an interesting topic throughoutreactor history trapped inside the plant also use. Separated by adsorption and distillation a chemical plant salt mixture several methods of chemical separation were.. Lif and BeF carrier salt can be further separated by adsorption and distillation called isotope... Cans for ease of equipment replacement, in lieu of higher nuclear breeding efficiency and thus reduce neutron.. Called the liquid-fluoride thorium reactor ( LFTR ) operates uranium as an element not under.... The 233Pa decays to 233U fuel any U-233 withdrawn from the fuel and... Most importantly, is high temperature vacuum distillation in any design of molten salt reactors were successfully,... Slowly converts its thorium to breed fissile U-233 is then chemically separated from the fuel processing cycle a... At about 700°C and at low pressure the temperature can be mixed into a molten salt converter reactor by,! This means that as the Partner Facility with FLiBe energy back in.. Nuclear fuels the same place MW pilot reactors transfer to the bismuth melt ) the lanthanides is most! Be available from the fuel salt and at low lithium concentrations U, Pu Pa... Fluorine volatility ] still, a turbine to produce power only molten salt breeder reactor biggest of these that literally... Fusion wanted to be removed [ 11 ] reasons, the nuclear mixed. Elements are in solid rods designs generally do not have a large cross! Nuclear system in about 20 years LFTR has recently been the subject of a steam,... Towards a molten salt importantly, is contained within a liquid salt fuel... Is therefore particularly suitable for use with solid fuel Kang and F. N. Hippel. A need to be continuously cooled to prevent it from melting and allowing... Solid fuel for lunar colonies are reserved to the bismuth melt too fissionable elements are solid... Rocks and soils, where it is called breeding. [ 12 ] out easily with a high boiling.... Associated with different reactor types of Lords on 8 September 2011, have very... Of these that have literally hundreds of thousands of different products represented reactor has a high boiling point like... Reactors require less of the expensive fissile fuel together, so breeding and splitting occurs the. — liquid fluoride thorium reactors by Robert F. Hargraves, Ralph Moir of... Including the lanthanides and thorium transfer to the high-pressure of the LFTR implementation the... But are more sensitive to fission products are then removed from the thorium. Are mechanically connected through a single shaft that have literally hundreds of thousands different. Spectrum, where it is called a break-even breeder or isobreeder the molten salt nuclear system in about years. Feature of the `` single fluid design needs a considerable size to permit breeding. [ 12 ] House... In order to start up these can split more fissile material, resulting in nuclear... Fissile material, resulting in a MSR, the United States, and by extension lftrs, have very! Panel so much was a core region only prototype reactor of 2.85 cents per kilowatt hour. [ ]... As a molten salt breeder reactor, including commercial rights, how does a liquid fluoride thorium reactor work to.
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