Baku Metro was opened in November 1967 and includes 3 lines and 25 stations at present; 170 million people used Baku Metro over the past five years. Picture Alliance, Getty Images. In fact, capturing the oil fields of Baku was one of the ultimate goals of Operation Edelweiss, carried out between May and November 1942. The Shirvan era greatly influenced Baku and the remainder of what is present-day Azerbaijan. An industrial area of oil refineries, better known as Black Town, was established near Baku by the early 1880s.[30]. Festivals include Baku International Film Festival, Baku International Jazz Festival, Novruz Festival, Gül Bayramı (Flower Festival) and the National Theater Festival. ", "Hotels in Baku earned 6,8 million euros last year", "Azerbaijani flag flies on world's tallest flagpole", "Bakı dünyanın ən bahalı 48-ci şəhəridir, 13 July 2011, Azadlıq Radiosu. Zoroastrianism, although extinct in the city as well as in the rest of the country by the present time, had a long history in Azerbaijan and the Zoroastrian New Year (Nowruz) continues to be the main holiday in the city as well as in the rest of Azerbaijan. Five months was insufficient for any realistic attempt to extract oil for German use and get it to Germany. Baku also has several football clubs in the premier and regional leagues, including AZAL and Ravan in Premier League. Throughout history the transport system of Baku used the now-defunct horsecars, trams and narrow gauge railways. Baku has many popular tourist and entertainment spots, such as the downtown Fountains Square, the One and Thousand Nights Beach, Shikhov Beach and Oil Rocks. [22], The eruption of instability following Nader Shah's death gave rise to the various Caucasian khanates. Yuli Gusman, film director and actor, founder and CEO of the Nika Award. The main movie theatre is Azerbaijan Cinema. [68] By the 15th century, oil for lamps was obtained from hand-dug surface wells. Vagit Alekperov, President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL. The old town core also has dozens of small mosques, often without any particular sign to distinguish them as such. The majority of the Muslims are Shia Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the second highest Shia population percentage in the world after Iran. It is still operating in its ancient setting. [32] The oil boom contributed to the massive growth of Baku. [16] Further archeological excavations revealed various prehistoric settlements, native temples, statues and other artifacts within the territory of the modern city and around it. [21] By 1730, the situation had deteriorated for the Russians; the successes of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747) forced them to make an agreement near Ganja on 10 March 1735, ceding the city and all other conquered territories in the Caucasus back to Iran. [120] In 2019, the Baku suburban railway opened. This included Romania which had fought with the Allies in World War I. Romania was critical because of the vital Ploesti oil fields. These Indian traders built the Ateshgah of Baku during 17th–18th centuries; the temple was used as a Hindu, Sikh, and Parsi place of worship. Baku (US: /bɑːˈkuː, ˈbɑːkuː/, UK: /bæˈkuː, ˈbækuː/;[6][7] Azerbaijani: Bakı, Azerbaijani: [bɑˈcɯ] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Thomson declared himself military governor of Baku and implemented martial law on the capital until "the civil power would be strong enough to release the forces from the responsibility to maintain the public order". [83] Baku has an original and unique appearance, earning it a reputation as the 'Paris of the East'. Winter snow storms are occasional; snow usually melts within a few days after each snowfall. Baku Boulevard is a pedestrian promenade that runs parallel to Baku's seafront. Standard Oil promised to supply the fuel. [citation needed]. Kerim Kerimov, one of the founders of the Soviet space program. [35] The newly independent Azerbaijani republic, being unable to defend the independence of the country on their own, asked the Ottoman Empire for military support in accordance with clause 4 of the treaty between the two countries. Beginning in late 1943 drilling work in Baku was reestablished. This makes for an interesting read. Baku's growing importance as a major energy hub remained in sight of the major powers. Audrey Altstadt, Conflict, Cleavage and Change in Central Asia and the Caucasus, lowest lying national capital in the world, Nazi German invasion of the southwestern Soviet Union, Saint Gregory the Illuminator's Church, Baku, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre, Azerbaijan State Theatre of Young Spectators, Azerbaijan State Theatre of Musical Comedy, Library of the Armenian Philanthropic Society, Azerbaijan National Carpet and Arts Museum, Heydar Aliyev Sports and Exhibition Complex, Rhythmic Gymnastics European Championships, 2005 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships, Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League, Azerbaijan Architecture and Construction University, List of twin towns and sister cities in Azerbaijan, https://www.stat.gov.az/source/demoqraphy/?lang=en, "Administrative, density and territorial units and land size by economic regions of Azerbaijan Republic for January 1. MAZI dipllomats worked to develop trade relations with the Balkan countries and to bring the countries in the rgion into the Axis. Oil was a problem for Germany from the first day of the War. Especially since oil is one of the main factors for invading the USSR in the first place. Join in if you dare! Moreover, Baku has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Soviet periods, as well as from other civilisations of the past. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev returned several synagogues and a Jewish college, nationalised by the Soviets, to the Jewish community. They arrived at the outskirts of the Galician oil fields on 15 September, and set up an office at Jaslo. [127] In 2010, the Baku International Sea Trade Port is began reconstruction. [citation needed], The Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, the main state research organisation in Azerbaijan is locating in Baku as well. Among Baku's cultural venues are Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall, Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre. However in March 1940 the soviets launched a full scale invasion of northern Iran and took Baku and it's oil fields. In the 1st century AD, the Romans organised two Caucasian campaigns and reached Baku. [109][110] Since 2011 the city annually hosts WTA tennis event called Baku Cup.[111]. 13 million tones of 17 million oil products were produced in Azerbaijan. [9] Officially, about 25% of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area. The independence of the Azerbaijani republic was significant but a short-lived chapter. Another and even less probable folk etymology explains the name as deriving from Baghkuy, meaning "God's town". [26] During World War II, Azerbaijan was part of the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Germany had very limited oil resources. On 28 April 1920, the 11th Red Army invaded Baku and reinstalled the Bolsheviks, making Baku the capital of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The largest sport hub in the city is Baku Olympic Stadium with 68,700 seating capacity whose construction was completed in 2015. [46][47], Until 1988, Baku had very large Russian, Armenian, and Jewish populations which contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways (music, literature, architecture and progressive outlook) to Baku's history. Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. These have led some to suggest the existence of a Bronze Age settlement within the city's territory. Large-scale oil exploration started in 1872 when Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors. The Synergy Baku Cycling Project participates in the Tour d'Azerbaïdjan a 2.2 multi-stage bicycle race on the UCI Europe Tour. The Martyrs' Lane, formerly the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and also to the 137 people killed on Black January. International banks with branches in Baku include HSBC, Société Générale and Credit Suisse.[70]. [27] The intensive growth of the population started in the middle of the 19th century when Baku was a small town with a population of about 7,000 people. The city underwent many major changes. Religious minorities include Russian Orthodox Christians, Catholic Levantines, Georgian Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Ashkenazi Jews and Sufi Muslims. Baku's vicinities feature Yanar Dag, an ever-blazing spot of natural gas. It was built sometime during the 12th–14th centuries. These projects also caught the attention of international media as notable programmes such as Discovery Channel's Extreme Engineering did pieces focusing in on changes to the city.[87]. ... Is it true or false that if Germany had manage to capture Baku with it's oil in WW2 it would had had won Germany WW2 at least in the Eastern front by depriving the Soviet union from oil and providing Germany with the oil needed to keep it's forces fueled? The Heydar Aliyev International Airport is the only commercial airport serving Baku. At this time the city was enclosed within the lines of strong walls, which were washed by the sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land. On 2 September 2010 with the inauguration of National Flag Square, Baku set the world record for tallest flagpole;[72][73] on 24 May 2011, the city of Dushanbe in Tajikistan set a new record with a 3 metres (9.8 feet)-higher flagpole. This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: the cobbled streets past the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, two caravansaries, the baths and the Juma Mosque (which used to house the Azerbaijan National Carpet and Arts Museum but is now a mosque again). In the Azerbaijan Women's Volleyball Super League, Baku is represented by Rabita Baku, Azerrail Baku, Lokomotiv Baku and Azeryol Baku. Shirvanshah Akhsitan I built a navy in Baku and successfully repelled another Rus assault in 1170. This pogrom was known as the September Days. Many Galicians, especially Jews, fled during this period to spend most of 1914 and 1915 in Vienna or safer zones in the Austrian empire. [25] Zubov had sent 13,000 men to capture Baku, and it was overrun subsequently without any resistance. Baku is noted for being a focal point for traders from all across the world during the Early modern period, commerce was active and the area was prosperous. [10][103], Baku has large sections of greenery either preserved by the National Government or designated as green zones. It is known also that the Soviets could not continue without the oil from Baku. The new Baku Cargo Terminal was officially opened in March 2005. [75] Its Nizami Street and also the Neftchilar Avenue are among the most expensive streets in the world. Log in or Sign up to interact with the community. The Inner City of Baku, along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower, were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. Baku has several shopping malls; the most famous city centre malls are Port Baku, Park Bulvar, Ganjlik Mall, Metro Park, 28 MALL, Aygun city and AF MALL. The daily mean temperature in July and August averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and there is very little rainfall during that season. [79][80] International and local exhibitions are presented at the Baku Expo Centre. It also sounds very much like a decent explanation for the current [ 2010 ] war in Afghanistan and definitely for the war in Iraq.It was written by Michael Antonucci who put it on line at The Quest for Fuel in World War II.He also wrote Code Crackers: Civil War Cryptanalysis. This The pioneer of oil extracting from the bottom of the sea was Polish geologist Witold Zglenicki. The three main institutions for exhibiting modern and contemporary art in Baku are: The music scene in Baku can be traced back to ancient times and villages of Baku, generally revered as the fountainhead of meykhana and mugham in the Azerbaijan. With the onset of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War and the pogrom against Armenians starting in January 1990, the city's large Armenian population was expelled. Уралочка, Ямамай и ЦЗ. [131], Lotfi A. Zadeh, artificial intelligence researcher, founder of fuzzy mathematics, fuzzy set theory, and fuzzy logic. 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