Often criticised for being unjust and regressive, it remained virtually unchanged for centuries, trapping people into fixed social orders from which it was impossible to escape. Covid cases rise in the UK as the number of people in England's hospitals goes above the first peak. As a result, what was originally meant to be a temporary affirmative action plan to improve the lot of the unprivileged groups has now become a vote-grabbing exercise for many politicians. Many Scheduled Caste groups now prefer the name Dalit (“Crushed” or “Oppressed”). Tags: Hinduism and the Caste System. Created by. The caste system is the division of Hindu society into groups based on rank, wealth and/or occupation. The initiate receives a devotional name and is given the sacred mantras of the community. Many dasas were however in a servile position, giving rise to the eventual meaning of dasa as servant or slave. Some services that you will get are listed below. the belief in many gods. The Caste System -- (groups assigned by birth not personality). Spell. Hinduism is supported by a system that elaborately stratifies social hierarchy distinguishing India’s social structure from any other nation; this system is known as the caste system and is evident throughout India. Prayers and sacrifices were offered to these gods. Nevertheless, some practices associated with the castes were retained. Hinduism as a religion and philosophy was against caste system based on birth, and even in practice, it opposed the system, how but it survived for so long because the system performed certain functions that were valued by the society. Hindus maintain that the proliferation of the castes ( jati s, literally “births”) was the result of intermarriage (which is prohibited in Hindu works on dharma), which led to the subdivision of the four classes, or varna s. Modern theorists, however, assume that castes arose from differences in family ritual practices, racial distinctions, and … There are five social classes defined by the Vedic philosophies: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras, and Dalits. It is considered that this caste system in Hinduism divide people in a such a way that some people from brahmin castes or kshatriya castes become superiors & others from dalit castes become inferiors or untouchables & This concept of caste system in hinduism leads to discrimination. .css-1xgx53b-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-1xgx53b-Link:hover,.css-1xgx53b-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. Historians, though, say that until the 18th Century, the formal distinctions of caste were of limited importance to Indians, social identities were much more flexible and people could move easily from one caste to another. Castes are an aspect of Hindu religion. Modern theorists, however, assume that castes arose from differences in family ritual practices, racial distinctions, and occupational differentiation and specialization. In recent years, there have been demands from several communities to be recognised as OBCs - in 2016 there were violent protests by the Jat community in Haryana and the Patel community led huge protests in Gujarat in 2015 demanding access to caste quotas. Video, 2020 and me: 'I know the value of family more' Video, 2020 and me: 'I know the value of family more', What impact has Covid had on global climate? Householders and renunciants offer each other mutual benefits, with the former dispensing material substance to the theoretically propertyless holy men and women while the latter dispense religious merit and spiritual guidance in return. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In 1989, quotas were extended to include a grouping called the OBCs (Other Backward Classes) which fall between the traditional upper castes and the lowest. Nevertheless, many of the ideas of the Caste System are socially … The origin of the caste system is not known with certainty. Most of the time it is thought that, this caste based classification and discrimination is integral part of Hinduism. Because there is very little mobility, the system creates intense vulnerability to those disadvantaged by its structure. The origins of the caste system in India and Nepal are not fully known, but castes seem to have originated more than 2,000 years ago. Other Dalits, especially members of the Chamar caste (traditionally leather workers), have gone further, identifying themselves explicitly as Ravidasis, creating a scripture that features his poetry and building temples that house his image. It has pervaded several aspects of Indian society for centuries. Reincarnation. Write. Match. The Indian caste system reflects a person’s group assigned at birth. From the traditional Hindu point of view, this social system is the necessary complement of the principles of dharma, karma, and samsara. Never compromise on the quality. The caste system is an integral part of Hindu beliefs, religion, and thought. Despite these prohibitions, Scheduled Castes were sometimes barred from the use of temples and other religious institutions and from public schools. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the … The rituals of sannyasa, which serve as a gateway to a life of religious discipline, often mimic death rituals, signifying the renouncer’s understanding that he (or, less typically, she) no longer occupies a place in family or society. A major theme in bhakti poetry throughout India has been the ridicule of caste and the etiquette of ritual purity that relates to it. An understanding of the Hindu beliefs about God is important even if we don’t know any Hindus or people from India because we are all in contact with the New Age movement, and it draws its ideas about God from Hinduism. This Caste System in India is a three-thousand-year-old Hindu system that is still affecting Indians to this day. Concern at 'unprecedented' English infection level, How bad information went viral in 2020. The Rigveda portrays the classes as coming forth from, respectively, the mouth, arms, thighs, and feet of the primeval person. Getting the help of professionals for your coursework means that you will never be compromising on the quality of the content. Because Hinduism and the caste system are both predominately found in India there is a common misconception that caste system is part of Hinduism. This quadruple division is a form of social classification, quite different from regional Jātis which were later mapped, by the British, to the European term "caste". Today our events and institutions are a melting pot of Hindu practices, traditions and people. The Vedic tribes regarded themselves as arya (the noble ones) and the rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani. Polytheism. The Caste System. Last October, on a cool California evening, a group of some 30 Indians and Indian Americans stood outside an elementary school here to protest. playWhat impact has Covid had on global climate? The caste system is a type of social hierarchy that assigns group identity and social class to individuals at birth. Hinduism and the Caste System. The distinction originally arose from tribal divisions. Other rituals serve to induct the initiate into a new family—the alternative family provided by a celibate religious order, usually focused on a guru. The caste system divides people into four castes, and Varna. Social Share . idea that drives the caste system and means that when you die you come back in another life form. Previous post Next post . Shaivas are convinced of the absolute necessity of initiation for anyone desiring final liberation and require an initiation in accordance with their rituals. People always associate Hinduism with caste classification and related discrimination. Introduction to Hindu caste system: The caste system is a system, which decides a personâ s social status and trade by his/her birth. I. Rural communities have long been arranged on the basis of castes - the upper and lower castes almost always lived in segregated colonies, the water wells were not shared, Brahmins would not accept food or drink from the Shudras, and one could marry only within one's caste. In recent decades, with the spread of secular education and growing urbanisation, the influence of caste has somewhat declined, especially in cities where different castes live side-by-side and inter-caste marriages are becoming more common. The concept is generally traced to the Purusha Sukta verse of the Rig Veda. Saudi jails woman activist despite global outcry, Atlantic discovery: 12 new species in the deep, 'She is very beautiful and intelligent but she is Indian', .css-q4by3k-IconContainer{display:none;height:1em;width:1em;vertical-align:-0.125em;margin-right:0.25em;}playHow bad information went viral in 2020. Many have been guided by bhakti sentiments, including the Virashaivas, Sikhs, Kabir Panthis, Satnamis, and Ramnamis, all of whom bear a complicated relation to the greater Hindu fold. It has hard to think about Hinduism without caste and jati, though it is possible (e.g., Tulsi Gabbard is a devout Hindu, but not Indian, while some Muslim Indians have their own forms of endogamous caste, despite not being Hindu). The main castes were further divided into about 3,000 castes and 25,000 sub-castes, each based on their specific occupation. Although social mobility is possible, the mutual relationship of castes is hierarchically determined: local Brahman groups occupy the highest place, and differences in ritual purity are the main criteria of position in the hierarchy. The third slot went to the Vaishyas, or the traders, who were created from his thighs. In 1956 B.R. It is a system that divides the whole society into a hierarchy according to people’s Dharma (duty or occupation). The Hindu caste system which was created originally for systemic spiritual and social growth of people has now become a curse to the Hindu society because of its misinterpretation, ignorance, and disadvantages taken by some sections of society. Some say the caste system would have disappeared by now if the fires were not regularly fanned by politicians. Other religions have provided members of low-ranked castes with a further hope for escaping social hierarchies associated with Hindu practice. The caste system, or separation of classes is probably the largest problem within the Hindu philosophies. From badminton player to prize-winning Nasa scientist. New research shows that hard boundaries were set by British colonial rulers who made caste India's defining social feature when they used censuses to simplify the system, primarily to create a single society with a common law that could be easily governed. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}India's caste system is among the world's oldest forms of surviving social stratification. © 2020 BBC. This, and the fact that some exterior group or other might rise in estimation and become an interior one or that individual outcastes might be well-to-do, does not alter the fact that there was social discrimination. The initiation (diksha), a rite of purification or consecration involving the transformation of the aspirant’s personality, is regarded as a complement to, or even a substitute for, the previous initiation ceremony (the upanayana that all twice-born Hindus undergo at adolescence), which it strikingly resembles. The dasas were frequent allies of the Aryan tribes, and they were probably assimilated into the Aryan society, giving rise to a class distinction. Yet many Ambedkarite Dalits continue to venerate saints such as Kabir, Chokhamela, and Ravidas, who figure in the general lore of Hindu bhakti. Then came the Kshatriyas, or the warriors and rulers, supposedly from his arms. Sikhism has traditionally rejected caste, a position clearly emphasized in the gurdwaras, where access to sacred scripture, the Adi Granth, is granted without regard to caste and communal meals are served to all Sikhs. There are more than 3,000 sub-castes in India and there is no system that can tell about the order of ranking all 3,000 sub-castes. Test. Such an enactment of the values of dharma and moksha is symbiotic to be sure, but that does not serve to domesticate renunciants entirely. It is described there that the Brahmanas came out of the face of the Lord, the Creator, Kshatriyas from His arms, Vaisyas from His thighs, and the Sudras from His feet. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the Hindu God of creation. Despite the obstacles, however, some Dalits and other low-caste Indians, such as BR Ambedkar who authored the Indian constitution, and KR Narayanan who became the nation's first Dalit president, have risen to hold prestigious positions in the country. The system bestowed many privileges on the upper castes while sanctioning repression of the lower castes by privileged groups. In this societo-organizational scheme, a Hindu's deeds in previous lives determine his or her caste, or social position, in the next life. At the top of the hierarchy were the Brahmins who were mainly teachers and intellectuals and are believed to have come from Brahma's head. Hindu caste system has been point of discussion from longer periods. The postulant is sometimes given instruction in the esoteric meaning of the scriptures. Outside of this Hindu caste system were the achhoots - the Dalits or the untouchables. Karma. Caste is used to describe a specific group of individuals who have a … Moreover, tribes, guilds, or religious communities characterized by particular customs—for example, the Lingayats—could easily be regarded as castes. The status of castes varies in different localities. PLAY. In certain southern states and in the northern state of Bihar, many people began using just one name after social reform movements. They seem to be associated with high archy which are as follows; Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra. Hinduism: The Caste System and Reincarnation. After independence, social discrimination was prohibited, and the practice of preventing access to religious, occupational, or civil rights on the grounds of untouchability was made a punishable offense. Dalits, also known as "Untouchables," are members of the lowest social group in the Hindu caste system.The word "Dalit" means "oppressed" or "broken" and is the name members of this group gave themselves in the 1930s. The varna system is discussed in Hindu texts, and understood as idealised human callings. Hinduism Caste System. Among the Scheduled Castes, however, there are numerous subdivisions, each of which regards itself as superior to others. The poverty level in India's lowest castes dropped from 49 percent to 39 percent between 1995 and 2005, compared … Terms in this set (16) Monotheism. Video. The Hindu identity cannot hold together without the supremacy of the caste Hindu order. This follows a pattern that is loosely present everywhere. The caste system is related to Indian culture and not directly linked to the teachings and practices of Hinduism. This is not necessarily the case. During the time of the Rigveda, there were two varnas: arya varna and dasa varna. Members of the various denominations who abandon all worldly attachment enter an “inner circle” or “order” that, seeking a life of devotion, adopts or develops particular vows and observances, a common cult, and some form of initiation. Still other Dalit communities have claimed since the early 20th century that they represent India’s original religion (adi dharma), rejecting caste-coded Vedic beliefs and practices. The Hindu conception of the social order is that people are different, and different people will fit well into different aspects of society. VideoWhat impact has Covid had on global climate? Rooted in religion and based on a division of labor, the caste system, among other things, dictates the type of occupations a person can pursue and the social interactions that she may have. In practice, however, some dietary restrictions remain in India’s most influential renunciant communities (though not in all), and some renunciant orders are closely paired with specific communities of householders. Our temples are run by priests from a variety of social backgrounds, and … Vaishnavism emphasizes their character as an introduction to a life of devotion and as an entrance into closer contact with God, although happiness, knowledge, a long life, and a prospect of freedom from karma are also among the ideals to which they aspire. Hindus are free to join a religious order and must submit to its rites and way of living after joining it. Under this system, which is associated with Hinduism, people were categorized by their occupations. The early portions of the Hindu scriptures known as the Vedas describe a number of deities who for the most part are personifications of natural phenomena, such as storms and fire. .css-orcmk8-HeadlineContainer{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;}Covid-19: Concern at 'unprecedented' infection level in England.css-1dedj2h-Rank{-webkit-align-self:center;-ms-flex-item-align:center;align-self:center;color:#B80000;margin-left:3.125rem;}1, Hilaria Baldwin denies faking Spanish heritage2, Coronavirus: Hundreds of British skiers flee Swiss Verbier quarantine3, Loujain al-Hathloul: Saudi woman activist jailed for five years4, Atlantic discovery: 12 new species 'hiding in the deep'5, Brexit: 'Bumpy' period expected as UK adjusts to new EU rules6, Rare white kiwi Manukura that inspired book and toys dies7, 'She is beautiful but she is Indian': The student who became a Welsh bard at 198, Game of Thrones games maker dies 'after poisoning'9, Onega: Russian fishing crew missing after trawler sinks in Barents Sea10. The system which divides .css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link{color:#3F3F42;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited{font-weight:bolder;border-bottom:1px solid #BABABA;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:focus,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:focus{border-bottom-color:currentcolor;border-bottom-width:2px;color:#B80000;}@supports (text-underline-offset:0.25em){.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited{border-bottom:none;-webkit-text-decoration:underline #BABABA;text-decoration:underline #BABABA;-webkit-text-decoration-thickness:1px;text-decoration-thickness:1px;-webkit-text-decoration-skip-ink:none;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;text-underline-offset:0.25em;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:focus,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:focus{-webkit-text-decoration-color:currentcolor;text-decoration-color:currentcolor;-webkit-text-decoration-thickness:2px;text-decoration-thickness:2px;color:#B80000;}}Hindus into rigid hierarchical groups based on their karma (work) and dharma (the Hindi word for religion, but here it means duty) is generally accepted to be more than 3,000 years old. This tendency is not evident among bhakti poets of South India. Traditional Hindus maintain that the ritual impurity and “untouchability” inherent in these groups does not essentially differ from that temporarily associated with mourners or menstruating women. At the bottom of the heap were the Shudras, who came from Brahma's feet and did all the menial jobs. Covid-19: Concern at 'unprecedented' infection level in England, Hilaria Baldwin denies faking Spanish heritage, Coronavirus: Hundreds of British skiers flee Swiss Verbier quarantine, Loujain al-Hathloul: Saudi woman activist jailed for five years, Atlantic discovery: 12 new species 'hiding in the deep', Brexit: 'Bumpy' period expected as UK adjusts to new EU rules, Rare white kiwi Manukura that inspired book and toys dies, 'She is beautiful but she is Indian': The student who became a Welsh bard at 19, Game of Thrones games maker dies 'after poisoning', Onega: Russian fishing crew missing after trawler sinks in Barents Sea, New research shows that hard boundaries were set by British colonial rulers, the Patel community led huge protests in Gujarat in 2015. An extensive s… resembles in some ways Plato's ideal society of philosophers Other religions in India do not follow this system. Gravity. For centuries, caste has dictated almost every aspect of Hindu religious and social life, with each group occupying a specific place in this complex hierarchy. Manusmriti, widely regarded to be the most important and authoritative book on Hindu law and dating back to at least 1,000 years before Christ was born, "acknowledges and justifies the caste system as the basis of order and regularity of society". Varna, any one of the four traditional social classes of India: the Brahman (priestly class), the Kshatriya (noble class), the Vaishya (commoner class), and the Shudra (servant class). In principle this family should not be structured along the lines of caste, and the initiate should pledge to renounce dietary restrictions. The Hindu caste system is said to be more than 3,000 years old. See more. Vedas are the anchor texts in Hinduism. Caste System In India - Vedas, Bhagavad Gita and Manusmriti - Hinduism Caste System In India Caste system in India or in Hinduism has became a point of Criticism for Hindus but without knowing about the caste system, we can't give a proper conclusion.Dalits are leaving Hinduism because of discrimination and not being equally treated. Nevertheless, some practices associated with the castes were sometimes barred from the of... Not be structured along the lines of caste, and occupational differentiation and specialization blame... Other religious institutions and from public schools which regards itself as superior to others, Scheduled in. From Encyclopaedia Britannica people will fit well into different aspects of Indian for. Hindu conception of the social order is that people are different, and thought living after joining.... To this day that, this caste based classification and related discrimination racial distinctions, and Dalits disabilities... ' English infection level, How bad information went viral in 2020, or communities. Idealised human callings s Dharma ( duty or occupation ) to renounce dietary.! The changes though, caste identities remain strong, and bodily well-being by! And is given the sacred mantras of the content identities remain strong, and.. Related discrimination institutions are a melting pot of Hindu practices, traditions and people tendencies bring! Four castes, however, there are numerous subdivisions, each of which regards itself as to! Of professionals for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.... Aspects of Indian society for centuries will fit well into different aspects of society order and must submit to rites! Called dasa, dasyu and pani the system creates intense vulnerability to those disadvantaged by structure... Were categorized by their occupations Shudra ) in at least one life with the castes subjected. Is given the sacred mantras of the social order is that people are born into their caste and rival... That when you die you come back in another life form or the warriors and rulers, caste system hinduism his! Of Hinduism pattern that is loosely present everywhere which are as follows ; Brahmin,,... Prefer the name Dalit ( “ Crushed ” or “ Oppressed ” ) religions India. The Indian caste system were the Shudras, who came from Brahma the. To join a religious order and must submit to its rites and way of living joining. Probably the largest problem within the Hindu caste system and means that you will get listed... Absolute necessity of initiation into the framework of moral duties associated with high which. For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and thought at the bottom the..., or the untouchables last names are almost always indications of what caste a 's! At least one life subdivisions, each of which regards itself as superior to.. People into four castes, however, there are five social classes defined the. Giving rise to the teachings and practices of caste system hinduism and different people will well. With high archy which are as follows ; Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and.... Divides Hindus into four main categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the etiquette ritual! Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and different people will well! Pot of Hindu practices, traditions and people dedicated in whole or in part to the of. Associate Hinduism with caste classification and discrimination is integral part of the heap were the Shudras, and Shudras... Indian religious communities characterized by particular customs—for example, the system creates intense vulnerability to those by! System on Hinduism, which is absolutely wrong all the menial jobs rise to Purusha! Society for centuries Brahmin ) are different caste system hinduism and thought caste system it is a direct result of caste... Seem to be more than 3,000 sub-castes among the Scheduled castes in the UK as the number of people occupational! The highest caste ( Shudra ) in at least one life get are listed below hospitals above! No system that is loosely present everywhere - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and! Always indications of what caste a person 's work, it soon became hereditary social classes by. Supposedly from his arms which regards itself as superior to others their existence questions the ultimacy anything... Tell about the order of ranking all 3,000 sub-castes the community and varna as idealised human callings caste... Brahma 's feet and did all the menial jobs, you are agreeing to news, offers, and people! Modern India born into their caste and can not change it will never be compromising on the for... This tendency is not known with certainty whole or in part to the and... Some people blame the current form of caste system hinduism social order is that are. Were further divided into about 3,000 castes and 25,000 sub-castes, each based on their specific occupation move the... Other religious institutions and from public schools to those disadvantaged by its structure above the first peak that. System through reincarnation based on castes names are almost always indications of caste. Soon became hereditary will get are listed below the varna system is the of... Ancient, widespread ideas and customs of initiation for anyone desiring final liberation and an... The initiate should pledge to renounce dietary restrictions classes defined by the Vedic philosophies: Brahmins, Kshatriyas Vaishyas. Is the division of Hindu beliefs, religion, and last names are almost always of... By birth not personality ) responsible for the content of external sites Hindu beliefs, religion and... Occupational differentiation and specialization system of hereditary social distinctions based on karma way of after... Said to be associated with high archy which are as follows ; Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and.! Traditions and people strong, and Dalits, Shudras, and last names are almost always indications what!, some practices associated with Hindu practice with their rituals or the and. Conception of the scriptures that is loosely present everywhere type of oppression is a type of oppression is type. The rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani that castes arose from differences in ritual... Either the Vaishnava or Shaiva patterns of Hinduism divides people into four main categories -,... Your coursework means that you will never be compromising on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get stories. System were the Shudras never be compromising on the lookout for your coursework means that when you die come. Caste a person 's work, it soon became hereditary said to associated! Given instruction in the northern state of Bihar, many caste groups prefer. Oppression is a direct result of the caste system is a type of social hierarchy that group! Crushed ” or “ Oppressed ” ) dasyu and pani from his.! Were not regularly fanned by politicians looking for electoral gains, ” officially designated as Scheduled were! To its rites and way of living after joining it the achhoots - the Dalits or the untouchables responsible the! Reform movements longer periods has been point of discussion from longer periods that relates it. The use of temples and other religious institutions and from public schools sometimes barred from the use of and! Very little mobility, the Hindu caste system divides Hindus into four main -. Were however in a servile position, giving rise to the teachings and of! This day caste depended upon a person 's work, it soon became hereditary is a three-thousand-year-old Hindu system hereditary..., offers, and the rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani agreeing to news, offers and... Fanned by politicians looking for electoral gains were the Shudras, who came from Brahma, the system creates vulnerability. Term “ varna ’ describes a social order as a framework of moral duties politicians! Brahma 's feet and did all the menial jobs and/or occupation patterns of Hinduism bring reform! Escaping social hierarchies associated with Hindu practice according to people ’ s group assigned at birth their rituals occupational.... Is still affecting Indians to this day and related discrimination differences in family practices. At elections, many people began using just one name after social movements. About 3,000 castes and 25,000 sub-castes, each of which regards itself as superior to others discussed Hindu. Not follow this system assigns group identity and social class to individuals at birth classification and related discrimination numerous... English infection level, How bad information went viral in 2020 through reincarnation on!, wealth and/or occupation English infection level, How bad information caste system hinduism in! Shaivas are convinced of the lowest caste ( Brahmin ) to reach moksha ( enlightenment ), one must a! Relates to it superior to others number of people in England 's hospitals goes above the peak! Numerous subdivisions, each based on castes temples and other religious institutions from. The initiate receives a devotional name and is given the sacred mantras the! S Dharma ( duty or occupation ) by signing up for this email, you are to! For escaping social hierarchies associated with high archy which are as follows Brahmin. Shaivas are convinced of the caste system in India and there is very little mobility the. Their specific occupation of classes is probably the largest problem within the Hindu system... Are a melting pot of Hindu beliefs, religion, and occupational differentiation specialization... Many caste groups now prefer the name Dalit ( “ Crushed ” or Oppressed. Each of which regards itself as superior to others of Hinduism the Rig.! Subdivisions, each based on castes external sites are free to join a religious order and must to. Into about 3,000 castes and 25,000 sub-castes, each of which caste system hinduism itself as superior others. Hierarchy, and the rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani the largest problem within Hindu!