A non-statutory glossary is provided for teachers. Ensuring that pupils are aware of the GPCs they contain, however unusual these are, supports spelling later. They should also be taught to use an unjoined style, for example, for labelling a diagram or data, writing an email address, or for algebra, and capital letters, for example, for filling in a form. They should have opportunities to improvise, devise and script drama for one another and a range of audiences, as well as to rehearse, refine, share and respond thoughtfully to drama and theatre performances. The terms for discussing language should be embedded for pupils in the course of discussing their writing with them. Handwriting requires frequent and discrete, direct teaching. Underpinning both is the understanding that the letters on the page represent the sounds in spoken words. The national curriculum test models were developed to align with the aims, purposes and content of the 2014 national curriculum. The exception words taught will vary slightly, depending on the phonics programme being used. consider what they are going to write before beginning by: planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about, writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary, encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence. Pupils should have extensive experience of listening to, sharing and discussing a wide range of high-quality books with the teacher, other adults and each other to engender a love of reading at the same time as they are reading independently. Pupils should be shown how to segment spoken words into individual phonemes and then how to represent the phonemes by the appropriate grapheme(s). Literature, especially, plays a key role in such development. ‘Thinking aloud’ when reading to pupils may help them to understand what skilled readers do. As in earlier years, pupils should continue to be taught to understand and apply the concepts of word structure so that they can draw on their knowledge of morphology and etymology to spell correctly. Pupils should do this both for single-syllable and polysyllabic words. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-english-programmes-of-study/national-curriculum-in-england-english-programmes-of-study. Spoken language underpins the development of reading and writing. *Teachers should refer to the glossary that accompanies the programmes of study for English for their own information on the range of terms used within the programmes of study as a whole. Curriculum Intent for English 2019 The English department at Wolstanton High endeavours to build on the prior learning of students, with a focus on developing students’ reading, writing, verbal and collaborative skills. In writing, pupils at the beginning of year 2 should be able to compose individual sentences orally and then write them down. Pupils should be shown some of the processes for finding out information. Role play can help pupils to identify with and explore characters and to try out the language they have listened to. Pupils should continue to practise handwriting and be encouraged to increase the speed of it, so that problems with forming letters do not get in the way of their writing down what they want to say. The 2 statutory appendices – on spelling and on vocabulary, grammar and punctuation – give an overview of the specific features that should be included in teaching the programmes of study. Pupils who are still at the early stages of learning to read should have ample practice in reading books that are closely matched to their developing phonic knowledge and knowledge of common exception words. However, education later became a devolved matter for the Welsh government. Increasingly, they should learn that there is not always an obvious connection between the way a word is said and the way it is spelt. Opportunities for teachers to enhance pupils’ vocabulary arise naturally from their reading and writing. The Curriculum for Wales Framework is being developed for settings and schools in Wales. maintain positive attitudes to reading and an understanding of what they read by: continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks, increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions, recommending books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices, identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing, making comparisons within and across books, learning a wider range of poetry by heart, preparing poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience, checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context, asking questions to improve their understanding, summarising the main ideas drawn from more than 1 paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas, identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning, discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader, distinguish between statements of fact and opinion, retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction, participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously, explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary, provide reasoned justifications for their views, use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidance for adding them, spell some words with ‘silent’ letters [for example, knight, psalm, solemn], continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused, use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in, use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words, use the first 3 or 4 letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary. 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