Ames, IA 50011-2031 While soybean used to be planted in 38 inch rows, row spacing of less than 20 inch is preferred regardless of tillage system, rotation sequence, or planting date. Soybeans grown in narrow rows (≤ 15 inches) tend to out-yield soybean produced in wide row width (30 inches) due to increased sunlight interception in … Harrison, Jr. 2004. A wide range of row spacings have been used successfully in soybean production. A study conducted in 2008-2009 (Cox and Cherney, 2011) found no row spacing by seeding rate interaction for soybeans planted in 7.5-inch, 15- inch, and 30-inch spacings. 2003. Figure 1. Average yield results from ten soybean row spacing studies published during the last 15 years. The move toward narrow row spacing is therefore increasing in popularity in Iowa. The later in the growing season soybeans are planted, the greater the yield increase due to narrow rows. 94:603-611. A fact sheet can be downloaded (pdf file) on soybean row spacing. Conley, G.E. Row spacings of 36 inches and wider are rare in the northern and central Corn Belt, but more common in southern raised-bed systems. Thus, they are more likely to be planting soybeans in 15-inch rows (Figure 5). Another option – owning a second planter specifically for soybeans – allows both crops to be planted at the same time, resulting in earlier completion of soybean planting. Economic analysis of row spacing for corn and soybean. J. Row Spacing. Harvest losses are reduced because there are no cultivator ridges to interfere with cutting height. Plant population and row-spacing effects on early soybean production systems in the Mid-Atlantic USA. Such scenarios include northern soybean producing regions where the growing season is shorter (Lee, 2006), early soybean production systems where short maturity varieties are planted early to avoid drought (Holshouser and Whittaker, 2002), delayed planting situations (Lee, 2006), and double-crop systems (Minor and Wiebold, 1998; Holshouser et al., 2006). How row spacing … At high yielding sites narrow row spacing increased yields; however, when there is a lot of stress on the soybean plant and the yield potential is low, narrow rows do not always provide the same kind of a yield advantage. The paper presents the effect of planting density and row spacing on the growth, development and yield of soybean, cv. Kelly. 1998. Source: 2015 Pioneer Brand Concentration Survey. Planting soybeans is really nothing new, and you can say the whole thing has come full circle. Mid-South soybean yield and net return as affected by plant population and row spacing. Plant the beans in rows that are about 30 inches (76 cm) apart. Wheel traffic to narrow-row reproductive-stage soybean lowers yield. Martin, and J.L. 2150 Beardshear Hall Holshouser, D.L., R.D. A dense soybean canopy can enhance these conditions and increase white mold severity. Locations, years, row spacings, and average yields of soybean row spacing studies summarized in Figure 1. Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. Growth and yield responses of soybean to row spacing and seeding rate. Agron. Agron. Knezevic, A.R. In some areas this increase has been substantial. J. The study’s average early season (2 to 4 weeks after planting) established soybean stand was 130,500 plants/acre with the planting rate of 150,000 pls/acre and 163,800 plants/acre with 200,000 pls/acre. When an application is made during vegetative growth, plants are generally able to compensate for damage caused by the sprayer wheels with little reduction in yield. Some growers in high residue systems prefer wider rows because there is more room to deposit residue between the rows, which helps prevent residue interference with planting and emergence. Swoboda, C.M., P. Pedersen, P.D. Pearce, and M.R. Soybean seeding rates of 90,000 to 120,000 seeds/acre resulted in the highest profitability. Average across the last two years of research and 17 experiments we have seen 4.6 bu/ acre advantage of 15 inch over 30 inch row spacing. Narrow rows have a yield advantage because they decrease the time to canopy closure and intercept more light throughout the season. It is difficult to weigh the potential yield benefit of narrow-row soybeans against equipment costs, time constraints and operator availability required. A research study conducted in Delaware and Virginia found significant yield reductions due to sprayer wheel damage in R4 soybeans planted in 7.5-inch and 15-inch row spacings, whereas soybeans planted in 30-inch and wider row spacings did not sustain any sprayer wheel damage (Holshouser and Taylor, 2008). Soybean planting date can have a significant impact on yield. Harville. Agron. In both years, soybean yield decreased by 0.6 bu/ac per day when planting after mid-May. The lowest pods will tend to be higher in narrow-row soybeans, potentially reducing harvest losses. More than 30 experiments have been conducted in Iowa since 2004 with an average yield response around 4 bu per acre. In Ohio, most soybeans are planted in row widths ≤ 15 inches. There was no interaction between plant spacing and plant density on yield, which indicates that the optimum density for soybean is not dependent on plant spacings. For that reason, numerous research studies have been conducted over the last 40 years to determine optimal soybean row spacing. 96:1029-1038. Grisso, Jr., and R.M Pitman. For instance, if you live in central Minnesota and originally planted a RM 1.7 variety, by about June 10 switch to an early group I soybean (such as a … Extensive research studies conducted over many locations and years have compared drilled narrow rows vs. 30-inch rows in soybeans, and have generally shown a significant yield advantage for drilled narrow rows. Agron. 2002. 2006. Yields were similar between 15-inch row and drilled narrow-row soybeans in these studies. Less lodging occurred both years when plants were uniformly spaced. Table 1. The rationale behind increasing row spacing is to increase light penetration and air movement in the lower canopy, thereby making conditions less favorable for white mold development. Changing from drilled narrow-row soybeans to 15-inch row spacing in areas where white mold is prevalent is likely a good move, particularly when accompanied by a reduction in seeding rate. 76:257-259. To plant more acres during the available window, some growers have opted to use their 30-inch planter for soybeans. Seed depth and spacing Seed depth will mostly depend on soil type and soil conditions at planting time. Planting date. 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. 95:564-573. In recent years, 15-inch and 30-inch row spacings have been the most common planting configurations in North American production, each accounting for over 1/3 of total acreage (Figure 2). The effect of plant … Adjust soybean maturities when planting after about June 10. The growing prevalence of weed populations resistant to glyphosate has made weed management more challenging in some areas; consequently, it is becoming increasingly necessary to consider the impact of cropping system factors such as row spacing on weed growth. One consistent trend across North America over the last several years has been the move away from drilled soybeans. Three planting densities were applied (70, 90 and 110 seeds per 1 m 2) with two row spacing (16 and 32 cm), in 4 replications. Use of nitrogen stress to demonstrate the effect of yield limiting factors on the yield response of soybean to narrow row systems. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, … 2005. Drilled soybeans, in row spacings of 12 inches or less, account for less than 20% of total acreage. Crop Management. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands for different row spacings are provided in Table 4. Conditions that may not favor narrow rows. Soybean response to planting date is important not only in years when planting is delayed by inclement weather, but also when weather does not disrupt the normal planting season. If you plant corn in 20-inch rows soybeans will be planted in 20-inch rows. C.D. White mold development is favored by cool and wet conditions during soybean flowering. 96:462-468. This demonstrates that many different considerations beyond simply yield potential can affect the best practices for each individual grower. Soybean yield loss due to sprayer wheel damage in 7.5-inch and 15-inch row spacings with four different boom widths (Holshouser and Taylor, 2008). However, acreage planted to 30-inch rows has also increased in almost all regions of North America over the last several years, reversing the long-term trend away from wider rows. Soybean plantings after June 20 in central/western NY and after June 10 in NNY can be risky, even with Group 0 varieties, especially if the remaining part of the growing season is cool or if frost occurs before October 1. Cox, W.J., and J.H. Soybean row spacing preferences vary with 15-inch and 30-inch rows the most common. Water the beans once they’ve been planted, but only until the soil is moist. This fungus has spread quickly due to the short rotations, decrease in tillage practices, and narrow row spacing. The question surrounding row spacing is “Will the increase in yield pay for the cost of replacing or altering the planter to plant in narrow row spacing?”. Row width is one of the management practices most often considered by growers as potentially important to increased soybean yields and profits. Soybeans grown in narrow rows produce more grain because they capture more sunlight energy, which drives photosynthesis. 1992. The relatively limited adoption of narrow-row soybeans in some areas indicates that factors other than yield potential are influencing grower decisions. Because many of these studies used higher seeding rates with narrower row spacings, increased seed costs partially offset the yield benefit associated with narrow rows. Effect of row spacing and seeding rate on soybean yield. J. Planting and spacing. J. Crop Sci. 100:704-710. While soybeans planted in a 15-inch row spacing can generally out-yield soybeans planted in a 30-inch row spacing, disease levels in a 15-inch row spacing can often be high enough that little yield advantage over the 30-inch row spacing might be observed in a high white mold environment. Holshouser, D.L., and R.D. While a few studies have shown little to no response of yield to row spacing, no studies to my knowledge have shown a yield increase with wider row spacing. Pioneer Crop Insights. Wet conditions in many areas during the last few planting seasons have exacerbated this situation by creating very short and intermittent planting windows. Esker, G.P. Spacing Space beans about 4-6 inches away from one another with 24 inches between rows. At this point, plant a soybean variety with a relative maturity (RM) rating of 0.5 units shorter than your original soybeans. Numerous research studies over the past 40 years have evaluated soybean row spacing. In eastern trials, 8% of planted PLS per acre did not develop into viable soybean plants. 103:1712-1716. Once the fungus is present in a field, little can be done to remove the pathogen and management practices to lessen the impact of the fungus must be implemented. It is recommended not to drill beans and use a tolerant variety to white mold if a specific field has a history of white mold. Larger farms are more able to justify the expense of a dedicated soybean planter and provide an operator for it. 2011. Opting not to split large planters means that both corn and soybeans are typically … A factor that has likely played a role in the recent increase in soybeans planted in 30-inch rows in some areas is Sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), or white mold. J. 2008. ISU Extension and Outreach Lambert, R.K. Roberts, A. Mengistu, N. Bellaloui, and E.R. Sow the soybeans 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) deep into the soil, and space the beans about 3 inches (7.6 cm) apart. Lauer. (No studies in sandy soils). Soybean response to zone tillage, twin-row planting, and row spacing. 95:965-971. Because fungicides are only locally systemic and are not translocated from upper to lower portions of the canopy, spray coverage is critical for maximum efficacy. Planting date (both too early and too late) can reduce soybean yield potential. In the last 10 years, studies show a 3 to 4 bu/acre yield advantage for soybeans planted in drilled narrow rows … With late planting, narrower row spacing is generally recommended. 1,2,3 In less productive fields or low-producing areas within fields, the final stand may need to be around 135,000 plants/acre. Recommended soybean seeding rates in Minnesota. In general, studies have found that soybean yield potential is often greater with row spacings narrower than 30 inches. However, the total number of operator hours spent planting would be greater and the second planter would require a second operator, which may not always be feasible. Equipment plays a large role in that choice. The increasing width of planters means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. 2004. Butzen, S., and S. Paszkiewicz. Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. In recent years, however, drilled soybeans have fallen out of favor in many areas, likely due to inferior seed placement and singulation capabilities of drills vs. planters, and the cost of planting additional seeds. Janovicek, K.J., W. Deen, and T.J. Vyn. 2011. 32:198-202. In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is therefore consider narrow row spacing. Thompson, N.M., J.A. Across North Dakota and row spacings, the planting rate of about 170,00 PLS per acre optimized soybean seed yield, while optimum yield occurred with 180,000 and about 140,000 PLS per acre in eastern and western North Dakota, respectively. However, row spacing practices vary widely across different areas. Recent research studies on soybeans have shown an average yield advantage of approximately 4 bu/acre with drilled narrow-row and 15-inch row soybeans over soybeans in 30-inch rows. Lee. Seeding rate generally appears to have a greater effect on white mold severity than row spacing (Lee et al., 2005). Glyphosate-resistant soybean management system effect on Sclerotinia stem rot. Narrow-row corn production - when does it increase yield? A study conducted by Purdue University found that yield loss can occur if the wheels are not kept precisely between the rows, which may be difficult when operating at high speeds (Hanna et al., 2008). 107:979-989. ™ ® Trademarks of Corteva Agriscience and its affiliated companies. Taylor. A review of soybean row spacing studies published within the past 10 years generally confirms previous results comparing 30-inch rows and drilled narrow rows. The minimum stand for maximizing soybean yields, and factors that affect this. Because the longest day of the year occurs on June 21, and all days get shorter after that, soybeans need as much sunlight as possible to make pods, seed, and yield. However, there are farmers who still hold on to their 15-inch split planters for planting corn and soybeans. In general, weed growth will be reduced in soybeans planted in narrower row spacings and earlier shading by the soybean canopy will help suppress the emergence of new weeds. Plant the seeds. Hock. Research findings on Minnesota soybean seeding rates. Often, row spacing decisions are made based on what equipment is already available. Wiebold. Farmers should take into account disease pressure and weed control options when planting in narrow row spacing. Univ. Rather, each grower should carefully consider the costs, risks and benefits of soybean row spacing options in their farming operation. Lambert, D.M., and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. We have moved away from drilling soybeans in favor of planting. One of the key issues growers must consider is whether the economics of their farm justify having a machine dedicated specifically to planting soybeans. 2006. Planting soybeans has gone from 30-inch rows to 7.5-inch rows with a drill back to 15-inch rows with a planter. Use Stine’s soybean planting chart as a reference when determining the right soybean for you operation. The earlier-maturing varieties, which tend to be short in stature, yield better at a row spacing of 15 inches or less. 54:38-46. Taking stand counts using the traditional method above can be arduous if soybeans are planted in narrow rows, so an alternative method may be more conducive to quickly getting stand count estimates. De Bruin, J.L., and P. Pedersen. Figure 4. The next consideration is row spacing. A more important factor determining the potential for white mold is environmental conditions. Reducing row widths to increase yield: Why it does not always work. Bertram, M.G., and P. Pedersen. This recent shift toward wider row spacings runs counter to the higher yields often associated with narrower rows, which indicates that other factors beyond yield are driving grower decisions in this area. We typically see a yield advantage, however, for soybeans in rows 20 inches or less. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0417-01-RS. Minor, H.C., and W.J. Agron. S.M., S.Z. Source: 2015 Pioneer Brand Concentration Survey. Online. For soybeans planted on droughty … Other than yield, the most important factor driving soybean row spacing practices is equipment and time management during the planting season. Many farm operations have a corn and soybean planter running simultaneously. Iowa State Univ. 1. As farms get larger, more acres must be planted in a shorter amount of time. A seeding rate as high as 225,000 seed per acre for organic soybean results in better weed control, higher yield, and the highest economic return compared to seeding rates of 175,000. Agron. In spite of this advantage, row spacing preferences vary greatly across North America, and 30-inch row soybeans are common and reflect a shift in planting attitudes. Soybean acreage in drilled narrow rows has declined across North America in the last five years, while acreage in 15-inch rows has increased. 2015. If you’re using the square foot gardening method, plant 9 per square foot. Row spacing. 2006. Two Nebraska On-Farm … Lee. It is important to recognize that row spacing is influenced by the field environment. Sow soybean seeds 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5cm) deep, 2 to 4 inches (5-1ocm) apart in rows 24 to 30 inches )61-76cm) apart. This Crop Insights reviews research results, current row spacing trends, and factors beyond yield potential that may influence row spacing preferences of soybean growers. 100:1488-1492. C.D., K.A. UNL research has shown that up to 5/8 bu/ac can be lost f… Percent of established plants compared to planting rate was 87% with the lower planting rate and 82% with the high … Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports. All rights reserved. 2015. Drilled soybeans have declined from 20% of soybean acres in 2011 to 14% in 2015 (Figure 4). Seeding rate recommendations for southern, central and northwestern Minnesota, as well as various maturity groups. Extension. Among the largest soybean-producing states there are substantial differences in row spacing practices, with a majority of growers in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Missouri favoring 15-inch spacings, compared to Iowa and Minnesota where soybeans planted in 30-inch rows are much more common (Figure 3). Row spacing in soybean. Recent research conducted in Iowa had similar results, indicating that narrow-row systems do not necessarily require a greater harvest stand to maximize yield (Pedersen, 2008). Table 2. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0227-04-RV. Plant soybeans in late winter in warm-winter regions. Wheat-soybean double crop management in Missouri. We prefer the planter for a number of … Online. Online. 1,2 It is highly unlikely that every emerged seedling will become a … of Missouri-Columbia Extension. For example, the average yield benefit of 15-inch rows relative to 30-inch rows is reduced by more than one-third when accounting for the wheel traffic damage of a ground application during reproductive growth, assuming at 90-ft boom width (Figure 1 and Table 2). Renner, D. Penner, R. Hammerschmidt, and J.D. 2008. Soybeans have a similar growth habit to bush beans, so there’s no caging or staking required. Weed Science. 103:123-128. We will continue the research in 2006. Under good humidity and thermal conditions in 2016 and 2017, the yield of seeds and protein in soybean was 3.3 times higher than if exposed to extreme drought and accompanying high air … J. Pedersen, P. 2008. The data available for row spacing from the past twenty years is fairly consistent for Midwest production areas and indicates that narrower row spacing does improve yield. Holshouser, D.L., and J.P. Whittaker. Figure 5. Soybean row spacing utilization according to farm size in 2015 (Small = 1-99 soybean acres, medium = 250-499 soybean acres, large = 500+ soybean acres). Several experiments over the years have shown that moisture stress can reduce the yield benefit of narrow rows (DeBruin and Pedersen, 2008). Is often greater with row spacings ( in inches ) soybean plant spacing North America in the growing season soybeans are in! Reducing row widths to increase yield be planted in 20-inch rows soybeans by an average of bu/acre! Most soybeans are planted in row widths ≤ 15 inches for maximum yield... Them easier to cut and feed into the combine total acres, average 2011-2015 every farm operation and come... 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